East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem (Arabic:القدس الشرقية, Hebrew: מזרח ירושלים) is the sector of Jerusalem that was not part of Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–1949 Arab–Israeli War. Israeli and Palestinian definitions of it differ; the Palestinian official position is based on the 1949–1967 post-armistice situation, while the Israeli position is mainly based on the current municipality boundaries of Jerusalem, which resulted from a series of administrative enlargements decided by Israeli municipal authorities since 1967. Despite its name, East Jerusalem includes neighborhoods to the north, east and south of the Old City, and in the wider definition of the term even on all these sides of West Jerusalem.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jerusalem was contested between Jordan and Israel, and on the cessation of hostilities, the two countries secretly negotiated a division of the city, with the eastern sector coming under Jordanian rule. This arrangement was formalized in the Rhodes Agreement in March 1949. A week after David Ben-Gurion presented his party's assertion that "Jewish Jerusalem is an organic, inseparable part of the State of Israel" in December 1949, Jordan annexed East Jerusalem. These decisions were confirmed respectively in the Knesset in January 1950 and the Jordanian Parliament in April 1950.
Jerusalem is a novel by the Swedish writer Selma Lagerlöf, published in two parts in 1901 and 1902. The narrative spans several generations in the 19th century, and focuses on several families in Dalarna, Sweden, and a community of Swedish emigrants in Jerusalem. It is loosely based on a real emigration that took place from the parish of Nås in 1896.
The first four chapters of the first book were adapted into two ambitious films by Victor Sjöström in 1919 and 1920, Sons of Ingmar and Karin Daughter of Ingmar. Sjöström originally intended to film the entire suite, but decided to cancel the project after the second film received unenthusiastic critical response.Gustaf Molander picked up where Sjöström left, and released his adaptation of the first book, Ingmarsarvet, in 1925, followed by the second, Till Österland, in 1926. The Danish filmmaker Bille August directed a 1996 film version with the title Jerusalem.
Jerusalem, or on Religious Power and Judaism (German:Jerusalem oder über religiöse Macht und Judentum) is a book written by Moses Mendelssohn, which was first published in 1783 – the same year, when the Prussian officer Christian Wilhelm von Dohm published the second part of his Mémoire Concerning the amelioration of the civil status of the Jews. Moses Mendelssohn was one of the key figures of Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah) and his philosophical treatise, dealing with social contract and political theory (especially concerning the question of the separation between religion and state), can be regarded as his most important contribution to Haskalah. The book which was written in Prussia on the eve of the French Revolution, consisted of two parts and each one was paged separately. The first part discusses "religious power" and the freedom of conscience in the context of the political theory (Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes), and the second part discusses Mendelssohn's personal conception of Judaism concerning the new secular role of any religion within an enlightened state. In his publication Moses Mendelssohn combined a defense of the Jewish population against public accusations with contemporary criticism of the present conditions of the Prussian Monarchy.
Jerusalem and Dopesmoker are the final albums by the American heavy metal band Sleep. The albums were released in 1999 and 2003 respectively. The music for these albums was written during a four-year period when the group was working on a single song that was around an hour in length. Sleep had signed with London Records, which financed the album. When recording had finished, London Records was unhappy with the finished product and refused to release it. The album was later released in various forms by different record labels. All versions of the album received very positive reception from music critics, who described it as a high-water mark in both the stoner metal and doom metal genres.